Provisions List 1630 A Catalog of such needefull things as every Planter doth or ought to provide to go to New-England Victuals for a whole yeere for a man... 8 Bushels of meale 2 Bushels of Otemeale. 1 Gallon of Aquavitae 1 Firkin of Butter 2 Bushels of pease. 1 Gallon of Oyle. 2 Gallons of Vinegar. Apparell. 1 Monmouth Cap. 1 Wast-coat. 1 Suit of Frize. 2 Paire of Sheets. 3 Falling Bands. 1 Suit of Canvas. 3 Paire of Stockings. 1 Paire of Blankets. 3 Shirts. 1 Suit of Cloth. 4 Paire of Shooes. 1 Course Rug. 7 Ells of Canvase to make a bed and boulster. Armes. 1 Armor compleat. 1 Sword. 1 Bandilier. 60 Pound of Lead. 1 Long peece. 1 Belt. 20 Pound of Powder. 1 Pistoll and Goose shot. Tooles. 1 Broad Howe. 1 Shovell. 1 Felling Axe. 1 Grindstone. 1 Narrow Howe. 1 Spade. 1 Gimblet. 1 Pickaxe. 1 Steele Handsawe. 2 Augers. 1 Hatchet. Nayles of all sorts 1 Whipsawe. 4 Chissels. 2 Frowes. 1 Hammer. 1 Broad Axe. 1 Hand-Bill. Household Implements. 1 Iron Pot. 1 Gridiron. Trenchers. Dishes. 1 Kettel. 2 Skellets. Wooden Platters. Spoons. 1 Frying pan 1 Spit. Spices Sugar. Cloves. Mace. Fruit. Pepper. Cinnamon. Nutmegs. Also there are divers other things necessary to bee taken over to this Plantation, as Bookes, Nets, Hookes and Lines, Cheese, Bacon, Kine, Goats, &c. From: New England’s Plantation, or, A short and True Description of the Commodities and Discommodities of that Country. By Reverend Francis Higginson, London, 1630.
Provision Suggestions 1639 What Provision is made for a Journey at Sea and what to carry with us for our use at Land by William Wood from New-England's Prospect, being a true, lively and experimental Description of that part of America commonly called New-England, London 1639 Many peradventure at the looking over of these relations, may have inclinations or resolutions for the voyage; to whom I wish all prosperity in their undertakings; although I will use no forcive arguments to persuade any, but leave them to the relation; yet by way of advice, I would commend to them a few lines from the pen of experience. And because the way to New-England is over the sea, it will not be amiss to give you directions what is necessary to be carried. Many I suppose, know as well, or better than myself; yet all do not; to those my directions tend. Although every man have ship-provisions allowed him for his five pounds a man, which is salt beef, pork, salt fish, butter, cheese, pease pottage, water grewel, and such kind of victuals, with good biskets, and six shilling beer; yet it will be necessary to carry some comfortable refreshing of fresh victuals. As first, for such as have ability, some conserves, and good claret wine to burn [burnt wine is brandy] at sea; or you may have it by some of your vintners or wine-coopers burned here, and put up into vessels, which will keep much better than other burnt wine; it is a very comfortable thing for the stomach, or such as are sea-sick; sallad-oil likewise, prunes are good to be stewed, sugar for many things; white biskets, eggs, and bacon, rice, poultry, and some weather sheep to kill aboard the ship, and fine flour baked meats will keep about a week or nine days at sea. Juice of lemons, well put up, is good either to prevent or cure the scurvy. Here it must not be forgotten to carry small skillets, or pipkins, and small frying-pans, to dress their victuals in at sea. For bedding, so it be easy, and cleanly, and warm, it is no matter how old or coarse it be for the use of the sea; and so likewise for apparel, the oldest cloaths be the fittest, with a long coarse coat, to keep better things from the pitched ropes and planks. Whosoever shall put to sea in a stout and well-conditioned ship, having an honest master, and loving seaman, shall not need to fear but he shall find as good content at sea as a land... Now for the encouragement of his men, he [the head of a family with servants] must not do as many have done (more through ignorance than desire) carry many mouths and no meat; but rather much meat for a few mouths. Want of due maintenance produceth nothing but a grumbling spirit with a sluggish idleness; when as those servants be well provided for, go through their employments with speed and chearfulness. For meal, it will be requisite to carry a hogshead and an half for every one that is a labourer, to keep him till he may receive the fruit of his own labours, which will be a year and a half after his arrival, if he land in May or June. He must likewise carry malt, beef, butter, cheese, some pease, good wines, vinegar, strong-waters, &c. Whosoever transports more of these than he himself useth, the overplus being sold, will yield as much profit as any other staple commodity. Every man likewise must carry over good store of apparel; for if he come to buy there, he will find it dearer than in England. Woollen cloth is a very good commodity, and linen better; as holland, lockram, flaxen, hempen, callico stuffs, linsey woolsies, and blue callico, green sayes for housewife's aprons, hats, boots, shoes, good Irish stockings, which if they be good, are much more serviceable than knit ones; all kind of grocery wares, such as sugar, prunes, raisins, currants, honey, nutmegs, cloves, &c soap, candles, and lamps, &c. All manner of household stuff is very good trade there, as pewter and brass, for the use of that country; warming-pans and stewing pans be of necessary use, and good traffick there. All manner of iron wares, as all manner of nails for houses, and all manner of spikes for building of boats, ships, and fishing stages; all manner of tools for workmen, hoes for planters, broad and narrow for setting and weeding; with axes, both broad and pitching axes. All manner of augers, piercing bits, whip-saws, two handed saws, froes, both for the riving of pailes, and laths, rings for beetle heads, and iron wedges; though all these be made in the country (there being divers blacksmiths) yet being a heavy commodity, and taking but a little storage, it is cheaper to carry such commodities out of England. Glass ought not to be forgotten of any that desire to benefit themselves, or the country; if it be well leaded, and carefully packed up, I know no commodity better for portage or sale. Here likewise must not be forgotten all utensils for the sea, as barbels, splitting knives, leads, and cod-hooks, and lines, mackrel hooks and lines, shark-hooks, seines, or bass-nets, large and strong, herring nets, &c. Such as would eat fowl, must not forget their six foot guns, their good powder, and shot of all sorts; a great round shot called Barnstable shot, is the best; being made of a blacker lead than ordinary shot. Furthermore, good pooldavies [a heavy canvas] to make sails for boots, roads, anchors for boats and pinnaces, are good; sea-coal, iron, lead, and mill-stones, flints, ordnances, and whatsoever a man conceive is good for the country, that will lie as ballast, he cannot be a loser by it. And lest I should forget a thing of so great importance, no man must neglect to provide himself, or those belonging to him, his ammunition, for the defence of himself and the country. For there is no man there that bears a head, but that bears military arms; even boys of fourteen years of age are practiced with men in military discipline, every three weeks. Whosoever shall carry over drums and English colours, pattesons [spear that is carried in front of troops], halberds, pikes, muskets, bandeleroes, with swords, shall not need to fear good gain for them; such things being wanting in the country.
Provisions List 1675 Provisions List from An Account of Two Voyages to New-England by John Josselyn 2d edition, London, 1675 The common proportion of victuals for the Sea to a Mess, being 4 men, is as followeth; Two pieces of Beef, of 3 pound and 1/4 per piece. Four pounds of Bread. One pint 1/2 of Pease. Four Gallons of Beer, with Mustard and Vinegar for three flesh dayes in the week. For four fish dayes, to each mess per day. Two pieces of Codd or Habberdine, making three pieces of a fish. One quarter of a pound of Butter. Four pound of Bread. Three quarters of a pound of cheese. Beer as before. Oatmeal per day, for 50 men, Gallon I. and so proportionable for more or fewer. Thus you see the Ships provision, is Beef or Porke, Fish, Butter, Cheese, Pease, Pottage, Watergruel, Bisket, and six shilling Beea. For private fresh provision, you may carry with you (in case you, or any of yours should be sick at Sea) conserves of Roses, Clove-Gilliflowers, Wormwood, Green-Ginger, Burnt-Wine [brandy], English Spirits, Prunes to stew, Raisons of the Sun, Currence, Sugar, Nutmeg, Mace, Cinnamon, Pepper and Ginger, White Bisket, or Spanish rusk, Eggs, Rice, juice of Lemmons well put up to cure, or prevent the Scurvy. Small Skillets, Pipkins, Porrengers, and small Frying pans... Apparel for one man, and after the rate for more L S D One Hatt 0 3 0 One Monmouth Cap 1 10 0 Three falling bands 0 1 3 Three Shirts 0 7 6 One Wastcoat 0 2 6 One suit of Frize 0 19 0 One suit of Cloth 0 15 0 One suit of Canvas 0 7 6 Three pair of Irish Stockins 0 5 0 Four pair of Shoos 0 8 0 One pair of Canvas Sheets 0 8 0 Seven ells of course Canvas to make a bed at Sea for two men, to be filled with straw 0 5 0 One coarse Rug at Sea for two men 0 6 0 Sum total 4 0 0